Advances in machine learning and other computing and communication technologies could enable adversarial actors to threaten the stability of societies and economies. In this CCC Quadrennial Paper, Bliss et al. discuss the need for tools, developed by a multidisciplinary community, that will measure demand for disinformation; and detect, attribute, and characterize disinformation supply. They also highlight the need to: measure the impact of disinformation including through causal inference; develop data infrastructure to enable the analysis of disinformation; define ethical guidelines to govern the collection of data needed for disinformation research; educate consumers on how algorithms and other technologies influence the information to which they are exposed; and train workforces to develop tools that mitigate disinformation risk.