In 2020, Linus Lee postulated about the unbundling of the cloud and the emergence of startups that would challenge the FAANG as previously niche use cases and workflows become more prevalent. He described how specialization (on well-defined workflows) enabled companies like Vercel and Netlify to grow rapidly by offering better developer ergonomics and integrating with other developer tools. Moreover, he considered the opportunity for special-purpose hardware like Google TPUs, predicting that startups might release hardware specialized for cryptography, video encoding/decoding, and networking tasks. Finally, he anticipated that the market for managed databases would balloon in response to unique developer requirements. He concludes by speculating that vertical integration might occur as startups develop platforms that integrate managed hardware, libraries, and languages purpose-built for markets like finance and e-commerce.